The five first-order factors and the two second-order factors were found to have satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.71–0.85). J. Thanks for your question. Negative Rumination consists of three first-order factors, i.e., Suppress Happiness (five items, e.g., “Think ‘Fall from the pinnacle of one’s power”’), Self-Deny (three items, e.g., “Think ‘I am a useless person”’), and Negative Attribution (five items, e.g., “Think ‘Misfortunes never come singly”’).

The stimuli in practice trials were neutral faces that were not used in the formal experiment. (2019) supports this point of view. Psychol. Dimenichi, B.C. Everything else I do with Pen/Paper is print. (2015).

Promoting effect of positive rumination training on negative ruminators of college students (in Chinese). It seemed that all my good friends had gotten married and left me alone, and I did a lot of expressive writing in my diary at that time. ; and Jones, C.J. 27, 247–259. As a kid I think I got a diary every year for Christmas. I am happy to know that you are enjoying expressive writing, and that your mother encourages you to engage with expressive arts. Appl.

Considering that previous studies have tapped adaptive or positive and maladaptive or negative rumination on either negative or positive affect but not both, we tried to integrate them by defining rumination as repetitive thoughts about both positive and negative affect and they function either positively or negatively regarding psychological adjustment. Responses to positive affect: a self-report measure of rumination and dampening. Positive Psychology: Is It "Saccharine Terrorism"? So I will be sharing how I feel about this as I continue, updating this comment daily. Behav. The two groups did not show significant difference of all the variables in pretest. (2013). Cogn. Importantly, Feldman et al. It has been speculated that writing about past unhappy events makes more cognitive resources available for new challenges. The experimenter is the first author who was a graduate student majoring in counseling psychology and achieved a certificate of third class national psychological counselors. (2018). About. The effect of positive rumination training for patients of depression (in Chinese). Items were rated on a four-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 4 (always). It is personal and emotional writing without regard to form or other writing conventions, like spelling, punctuation, and verb agreement. The pilot establishment and evaluation of chinese affective words system (in Chinese). When the experiment was finished, the control group participants received the same intervention. This can be explained by the theoretical point that emotional regulation is a process of updating emotional information, i.e., to remove negative emotional information out of WM and replace it with a positive one (Levens and Gotlib, 2010, 2015). (1996).

The 2-back task of formal experiment consisted of three blocks (positive, neutral, and negative blocks; see also Han et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2018). Similarly, Kaiser et al. @golf07 - You perfectly describe me when you talk about people who dreaded any kind of expressive writing program. These findings suggest that expressive writing could be modified to reduce negative rumination such as brooding. In expressive writing, a writer uses prose to reflect on an issue, emotion or experience. Studies have shown that psychological interventions can reduce negative rumination and improve psychological adjustment and WM capacity. van Vugt, M. K., van der Velde, M., and ESM-MERGE Investigators (2018).

I really wanted to write how frustrated I was about being made to sit and write, but didn't think that would help my grade much. Like this was really going to stop any of them?! Ther. How effective is it? After hearing our results, we had to write a paper on how we felt about them. Specifically, the present finding indicates that positive rumination would facilitate WM updating, whereas negative rumination would impair it. I have been willing to share some of the things here with close friends and lovers, is why; so I wrote things that would be pleasant for *me* to revisit, and maybe also someone else. Their writing experience allows them to quickly develop a successful essay on your topic. And perhaps you will share what you discovered with our readers. On most occasions, expressive writing does all of these. Working memory (WM) updating is a core component of WM and refers to one’s ability to monitor and dynamically manipulate WM contents, to evaluate its relevance for the current task, and to replace it with newer, more relevant information (see Zuber et al., 2018).

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