Fluorite (fluorspar) is commonly used to create fluorescent pigment and since it is very beautiful, it is used for gem material.

The common non-silicate minerals, which constitute less than 10% of the Earth's crust, include carbonates, oxides, sulphides, phosphates and salts. The magma originates deep within the Earth near active plate boundaries or hot spots, then rises toward the surface.

Equigranular granite. Eight elements make up 98% of the Earth’s crust: oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium. The fragments are generally angular and broken. The composition of a rock, as well as the appearance, shape, and arrangement of the grains or crystals within the rock (i.e. In the case of metamorphic rocks, some or all of the original minerals are replaced by new minerals, and the original textures are commonly masked due to the deformation (such as shearing and folding) that may accompany metamorphism. Silicate minerals are the most abundant components of rocks on the Earth's surface, making up over 90% by mass of the Earth's crust. Tuff is classified on the basis of the relative components of the various fragments. Rocks are classified into three main types, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic, depending upon their mode of formation.

Micas form flat, book-like crystals that split into individual sheets, separating into smooth flakes along the cleavage planes. Plagioclase feldspar is an important industrial mineral used in ceramics.

Also, any type of rock can become a new rock of the same type. Although accessory minerals are present in only small amounts, they may provide valuable insight into the geological history of a rock, and are often used to ascertain the age of a rock. Feldspar: Characteristics of the two types of feldspar.

Sphalerite exhibits cleavage in six directions.

Igneous rocks form when hot, molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies. Figure 17 - Siltstone, When a quartz specimen is broken with a hammer, it displays conchoidal (shell-like) fracture. flattened during its formation. Based on their mode of formation, rocks are classified into three main types: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

The physical properties of minerals, such as their hardness, lustre, colour, cleavage, fracture and relative density, can be used to identify minerals.

These rocks are composed mainly of alkali feldspar, quartz, and plagioclase feldspar, with smaller amounts of amphiboles and micas. To be considered a common rock-forming mineral, a mineral must: A) be one of the most abundant minerals in Earth’s crust; B) be one of the original minerals present at the time of a crustal rock’s formation; and, C) be an important mineral in determining a rock’s classification. Garnets may also come in a large range of colours, depending on their composition. Iceland spar, a variety of calcite, cleaves readily along three planes of weakness into distinctive rhombs. The best way to learn about minerals is to study with a collection of small specimens that you can handle, examine, and observe their properties. hematite, malachite, Columnar – long, slender prisms, e.g. It is described by the following terms, Adamantine – diamond-like lustre; such minerals are usually transparent and have a high refractive index; e.g. Calcite is generally white to clear, and is easily scratched with knife. Since it is most commonly found in granite, this mineral is used mostly as a building material.

Olivine is common in mafic and ultramafic rocks, but has not been found in Hong Kong. A hand lens will assist you greatly. Feldspar is the most common mineral on Earth.

We use things made from rocks and minerals every day. The rocks generally display a silky or shiny appearance due to the presence of micas. The origin of any particular rock can be determined by careful examination of its texture, composition, and internal structure, features that form the basis of rock identification and classification. It is a common vein mineral and is often associated with mineral deposits.

Minerals may also occur as aggregates of crystals; for example, asbestos is usually found as an aggregate of very fine fibres. Quartz crystals are usually hexagonal and prismatic in shape. Lava may contain some larger crystals (phenocrysts) within the fine-grained groundmass.

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