Furthering the discussion, Alemante suggested that federalism, even when it is not coupled with ethnicity, has generally not had a distinguished record as a stable form of government, and referred to the fact that even a ‘philosophically and legally’ sophisticated federal system – that of the United States – has not been spared the tragedy of a costly civil war due to separatist demands (Alemante 2003:85). While Fukuyama’s thesis was profoundly challenged by the September 11, 2001, attacks and the subsequent U.S. “war on terrorism,” open warfare between the armies of nation-states did, in fact, become increasingly rare in the post-Cold War environment.
Ake, Claude 1993. Four million people fled the country, while millions more were internally displaced. Eastern Ukraine joined the Moldovan region of Transdniestria and the Georgian regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia as areas of Kremlin-backed frozen conflict. On March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued an arrest warrant for Bashir—the first time that the ICC sought the arrest of a sitting head of state—charging him with war crimes and crimes against humanity. In Benishangul, between Gumiz and Oromo ethnic groups.
Despite some human rights reports on ethnic conflicts in Ethiopia, no one has made an inventory of ethnic conflicts according to technicality problems of ethnic federal arrangement in Ethiopia. Ghana 1992. Ethiomedia News, 4 October. With nearly 862 different ethnic groups globally, conflict was inevitable on the global stage.
In: Turton, David ed. One could take this as a historical justification for a federal system since Ethiopians have lived for longer periods under decentralised forms of government (Assefa 2006:135). The design of federal units and administrative structures, whether symmetric or asymmetric, may cause problems and conflict. Federalism in Africa: Origins, operation and (in)significance. Watts, Ronald 2008. The group was relatively obscure until 2009, when it launched a series of raids that killed dozens of police officers. The uprising became a civil war that spread violence into neighboring Iraq and provided a fertile breeding ground for militant groups such as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS). Groups that are not recognised under incongruent or asymmetric federations may organise protests to try to gain a greater level of recognition constitutionally (Lancaster 2012:60).
Due to the subjectivity of the parameters and the autocratic nature of the federal government, the fiscal federal funds are not distributed to the sub-regional governments in a genuinely fair way. The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. These scholars further state that the current situation in Ethiopia presents dangers that could affect all ethnic groups in the future (Holder et al. Inter Africa Group. Holder, Christina, Zeba Huq, and Mary Catherine Ryan 2006. Seen from the perspectives of South Africa’s and Nigeria’s federal structures, Ethiopia’s federal arrangement is highly ethnocentric. The Kremlin insisted that it was not taking a direct hand in eastern Ukraine, claiming that Russian troops that had been killed or captured in Ukrainian territory were “volunteers.” By the early summer of 2014, pro-Russian forces had overrun a sizable swathe of territory, and in July, Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down over rebel-controlled territory by a Russian-supplied surface-to-air missile. Legesse, Tigabu 2015. In early 2003 rebel groups took up arms against the Khartoum-based regime of Sudanese Pres.
The Tigrayan nationalists saw the Amhara domination as the major reason behind the problems in Ethiopian society (Aalen 2002:38). In both these cases, the leaders endorsed the validity of the statement that political leadership is a major culprit in the perennial conflict and competition over resources (Adejumobi 2007:139). Human Rights and Genocide Clinic Cardozo, School of Law. Many people died and a number of people were injured. thesis. Thus, analysing such conflicts with more rigour made available by the social sciences and modern contemporary approaches is necessary. Section two gives a brief description of the historical background and the nature of the current political system in Ethiopia. The Nigerian federal structure is to give legitimacy to territory over ethnicity by distributing the core population of each ethnic group in several states and thus Nigeria’s federal structure helps avoid the crystallisation of ethnic identity around a particular territory (Alemante 2003:100). Moresh Wegenie Amhara Organization 2016.
What then are the conflict-promoting applications of ethnic federalism in Ethiopia? Engineering ethnic conflict: The toll of Ethiopia’s Plantation Development on the Suri people. Ethnic conflicts are responsible for some of the worst violence in history, and this is still true today.
Now, however, ethnic groups are competing with each other and several inter-ethnic conflicts have arisen across boundaries of regional states that are drawn along ethnic lines (Legesse 2015:2; Abbink 2006:390). For example, Ethiopia and Russia which employ high levels of incongruent and asymmetric federalism, respectively, have experienced moderate-to-high levels of conflict since adopting their most recent constitutional arrangements (Lancaster 2012:60). 535–552. More than 3,500 troops from the NATO-led coalition were killed during that time, and 29 countries were represented among the dead. Research studies also show that if ethnic differences are high and politicised and if ‘federal bargain’ type solutions are difficult to achieve, then decentralisation may result in greater ethnic mobilisation and may lead to secession (Abbasi 2010:13).
The principles behind asymmetric federalism’s potential to mitigate civil conflict in a state are similar to those of incongruent federalism (Lancaster 2012:22). Over one hundred people died and four people were injured. Hadī was placed under house arrest, but he escaped and fled to the southwestern port city of Aden. The civil war in Yemen had its genesis in the Arab Spring and the uprising that toppled the government of ʿAlī ʿAbd Allāh Ṣāliḥ. Ethnic Conflicts: this can be divided into cultural, ethnic, or religious communities and identities. In a nutshell, in a multi-national and multi-cultural country, federalism might be an effective method of bringing about political stability and order. One hundred and forty people died and one hundred thousand people were displaced. This article is organised in the following sections. Ethnic federalism and conflict in Ethiopia: What lessons can other jurisdictions draw? Many times such states are artificial products (e.g., former colonies) that were created without regard for the existing ethnic and political divisions within their borders, and their political and legal institutions tend to be ineffective.
The former power struggles between the central and the regional rulers changed from a struggle for territorial expansion into a class struggle. Ṣāliḥ left Yemen to receive medical treatment, a move that ultimately led to the transfer of power to Ṣāliḥ’s vice president, ʿAbd Rabbuh Manṣūr Hadī. This can be learnt from comparing Ghana and Ethiopia which are, respectively, democratic and developed, and undemocratic and poor.
Pointing out the limitations of the federal system in Ethiopia, Assefa (2006:135) argues that a significant number of Ethiopians do not live in the places where the majority of the members of their ethnic group are to be found; they have moved, either voluntarily, in search of better opportunities, or by force, due to the Dergue’s resettlement and villagisation. The ‘EPRDF’s constitution’ Article 47 (1) classifies the member states of the ‘Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia’ into nine regional states (refer to appendix II). Young, John 1999. The Ethiopian federal structure appears to be that of one-party state governance, which is characterised by highly concentrated and centralised powers maintained by totalitarian institutions such as the military, other security organs and state-controlled mass media. Competition between the two ethnic groups on regional hegemony (HRC, 71. The TPLF-controlled Broadcasting Corporation does not have the real colour of a broadcasting agency; it has developed the habit of slaying truth with the swords of falsehood. Addis Ababa, Commercial Printing Press. The final report on ethnic cleansing done on Amhara ethnic group from 1991 to 2016.
Dickovick, Tyler 2014. In Gambella, the Nuer and the Anwak have fought for regional hegemony. Ninety-three people were killed; forty-two people were injured. In: Turton, David ed. But the ‘current government’ has imposed a federal structure and has politicised human diversity. Erk, Jan 2014. Mesfin, Wolde-Mariam 1999. 131–164.
Abbasi, Zubair 2010. Ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria also have some colonial antecedent. Valfort, Marie-Anne 2007. Entertaining ethnic diversity in multi-lingual and multi-cultural societies using federalism is a bone of contention for most scholars in the area. Vestal, Theodore 1999. But this seems to be a grand misinterpretation of Ethiopian history. The troubles that these particular ethnic groups display show that incongruent and ethnic federalism can be a recipe for grievance and potentially for conflict if an ethnic group is not recognised as important enough by the federal government (Lancaster 2012:46). Along Ethiopia’s western frontier: Gambella and Benishangul in transition. There is considerable evidence to suggest that ethnic federalism entails conflict since it politicises tribal identity and scholars soundly refute its applicability, especially in the Ethiopian context.
Ethiopia and Ghana are multi-ethnic societies with ethnic inequalities and historical rivalries but in Ethiopia, ethnic politics are the foundation and the lifeline of the TPLF which requires states to be structured as homogeneous tribal homelands, in much the same way as the Bantustans of apartheid South Africa (Alemayehu 2015). 51–107. For instance, a great deal of dissatisfaction in the federal-provincial relationship in Pakistan has been observed around the distribution of financial resources (Abbasi 2010:36).
Backed by Russian troops, a pro-Russian party that had previously had minimal representation in the Crimean legislature seized control of the regional government; it voted to secede from Ukraine and seek annexation by Russia. Ethnicity and conflict generation in Ethiopia: Some problems and prospects of ethno-regional federalism. The ethnic conflict occurred in a really long time since Bosnian separated from Yugoslavia. In this regard Amnesty International (2014/15:148) reported that the Media Law, Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) and Anti-Terrorism Proclamation (ATP) limit freedom of expression and effective citizens’ participation in political activities. Southern rulers who peacefully submitted to Menelik II, such as the rulers of Jimma, Wollega, Bale, Benshangul and Assosa, were allowed to rule their territories by paying a fixed amount of tribute (Bahru 2002:87). A case in point is the Sidama ethnic groups in Ethiopia having three million people and failing to get the status of a regional state whereas the Harari whose overall population is 185 000 has been accorded a regional state. In the light of this, Mesfin (1999:142) stated that the structure of the traditional Ethiopian state was federal, having many kings (governing their own provinces) but one king of kings (ruling the whole state). Examples of such conflicts are the language issue in Wolaita in North Omo zone, the Silte’s request for independence from the rest of the Gurage zone and conflicts between Suri and Dizi pastoralist groups in South Omo zone. Federalism’s track record as a source of instability and secession might well counsel against choosing this form of government for Sub-Saharan African states (Alemante 2003:85). That is, the regional rulers had some degree of autonomy to govern their respective regions, which is the modern essence of federalism.
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